Kashi Clinical Laboratories provides full-service HLA testing with the leading HLA typing technology, rapid turnaround times, competitive pricing, and the utmost attention to quality.
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HLA-typing is inevitably needed for many types of research on T cell immunology, all flow cytometric work on HLA multimers, and most functional cellular assays such as ELISpot. Correlating the immune response of the subjects with their HLA type is a critical step in success of carrying out clinical trials for vaccine and vaccine development efforts.
HLA alleles are associated with several diseases and they are implicated in many types of immune response. Determination of a subject’s HLA type may reveal critical information in ascertaining drug efficacy or outcome of a disease investigation. Some HLA alleles are known to modulate the immune response of a patient to certain therapeutic products that may lead to heightened drug susceptibility. HLA typing of subjects is the key to establishing preventative measures to such responses and pursuing other treatment options.
Intermediate resolution HLA typing results include a subset of alleles sharing the digits in the first field of their allele name. This resolves major allele groups to 4 digits, with some degeneracy such as: A*02:01/02:02/02:05/02:36.
High resolution HLA typing resolves alleles to a specific 4-digit allele, with occasional degeneracy that results in a set of alleles specifying and encoding the same protein sequence for the peptide binding region of an HLA molecule.
The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC), or human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex, comprises several genetic loci on the short arm of chromosome 6. Seven of these loci encode two distinct classes of highly polymorphic cell surface antigens. Class I MHC antigens include HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C, each encoded by a separate locus. Class II MHC molecules include HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP each having varying degrees of alloimmunity.
Many alleles exist for each locus of the Class I and Class II of HLA genes. An extensive sequence polymorphism is present in the second exon of Class II loci and in the second and third exons of Class I loci. These polymorphic regions encode the peptide-binding groove of the MHC molecule and are important to disease susceptibility and transplantation. KCL uses the Sequence-Based Typing (SBT) methods, including Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Sanger Sequencing, to determine HLA-A, B, C and HLA-DR, DQ, DP high-resolution type for haematopoietic stem cell patients and their selected unrelated donors. In addition, HLA alleles have been implicated in susceptibility or resistance to a variety of autoimmune, infectious, and oncologic disorders. HLA association studies must use typing techniques with high resolution that distinguish the HLA subtypes.
Significant associations have been found between the HLA alleles and certain disorders or deficiencies in many disciplines, including rheumatology, nephrology, neurology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, respiratory, ophthalmology, infectious disease, dermatology, immunology and psychology. SBT helps define the possible associated HLA subtypes and is of interest for R & D projects concerned with T cell mediated immune response. Determination of the individual HLA marker is often used diagnostically in immunotherapy and immunomodulation approaches.
Sequence Based Typing (SBT) provides a higher resolution HLA typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, -DQ and -DP locus alleles. The typing obtained by this technology is often used for typing the recipients and donors involved in stem cell transplants. In addition, this technique provides a comprehensive typing for pharmacologic and disease association studies. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) provides an ultra-high resolution HLA typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, -DQ and -DP locus alleles. Additionally, NGS offers the capability of multiplexing the samples which can significantly reduce the turnaround time when HLA typing a large number of samples. The typing obtained by NGS technology is often used for typing the recipients and donors involved in stem cell transplants as well as for pharmacologic and disease association studies.
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