Pain Management – Urine Drug Testing

  1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) [online]. (2014) Available from URL:
  3. National Institute on Drug Abuse. DrugFacts: Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications. (2014) Avaliable from URT:
  4. Hammett-Stabler CA and Webster LR. A Clinical Guide to Urine Drug Testing: Augmenting Pain Management & Enhancing Patient Care. 2008.

Addiction Treatment – Urine Drug Testing

  1. U.S. Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center. The Economic Impact of Illicit Drug Use on American Society. Washington D.C. 2011:1-108.
  2. Rehm J et al. Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Lancet. 2009; 373(9682):2223-33.
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Addressing Prescription Drug Abuse in the United States. Washington D.C. 2013:1-36.
  4. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Chapter 2 Impact of Substance Abuse on Families. In: Substance Abuse Treatment and Family Therapy. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 2004. Available at:

Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN) – Urine Drug Testing

  1. Mitchell AA et al. Medication use during pregnancy, with particular focus on prescription drugs: 1976-2008. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 205(1):51.e1-8.
  2. Andrade SE et al. Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program. Matern Child Health J. 2012; 16(7):1349-54.
  3. Costantine MM. Physiologic and pharmacokinetic changes in pregnancy. Front Pharmacol. 2014; 5(April):65.
  4. Van Gelder MMHJ et al. Teratogenic mechanisms of medical drugs. Hum Reprod Update. 2010; 16(4):378-94.
  5. Kluger BM and Meador KJ. Teratogenicity of Antiepileptic Medications. Semin Neurol. 2008; 28(3):328-335.
  6. Minnes S et al. Prenatal tobacco, marijuana, stimulant, and opiate exposure: outcomes and practice implications. Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2011; 6(1):57-70.

Please contact Kashi  for further scientific reference papers.