Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an idiopathic autoimmune neurodegenerative disease in which dysregulation of the immune system causes myelin sheath degradation. Multiple sclerosis is characterized by plaques or lesions in the brain and spinal cord. The location and size of the lesions is unpredictable. Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis include affected coordination, balance and vision, and disturbances in the bowel, bladder and sexual organs. Disease onset is typically between the ages of 20 and 40. Women have a 2 -3 fold higher incidence of MS than men. The distribution of MS inversely parallels the global distribution of UV light, suggesting a role for vitamin D in the disease.
The main value of genetic testing in MS is to provide insights into the mechanism of the disease, thereby potentially suggesting strategies for prevention and treatment, rather than as a diagnostic tool. First degree relatives of patients with MS are generally at 20 – 40 times greater risk of developing the disease themselves, compared to the general population, showing that the disease has a large genetic component. HLA-DRB1*15:01 is a disease susceptibility gene, accounting for up to 35% of the heritability of the disease. Homozygosity for this haplotype increases disease risk six fold. The exact mechanism by which HLA increases the susceptibility to MS is unknown. A recent finding of a vitamin D response element in the promoter region of HLA-DRB1, which is completely conserved in HLA-DRB1*15:01, together with evidence showing that vitamin D is significantly lower in MS patients is suggestive of combined effects of HLA-DR15:01 inheritance and vitamin D exposure on MS risk.